Liquid Carbonic Co. Soda Water Guide

From Liquid Carbonic Co Soda Water Guide

Soda Water Guide
Everyone admires progression—when it "progresses." We have, during the past decade, seen many and varied actual improvements over the old-style soda fountain, but, also, the soda fountain business has not escaped the capricious eye and whim of the "faddist." Innovations in soda fountain construction come and gor leaving only a few relics behind to tell the tale of woe. And there is one feature about these freaks and fads that should be borne in mind—the purchaser always pays for the experiment. When the fad has lived its short life, it goes out like a flash, and the abortions in soda fountain construction which are left behind are not worth the wood and the metal of which they are composed. And then the wiser but poorer dispenser comes back to sensible and practical soda water apparatus.

If you haven't money enough to experiment with novelty "soda fountains" and not suffer from the "after effects," stay out of the game. They may look good on paper and sound well in poetry, but when it comes to practical dis-pensing they are not "there with the goods."

In selecting a fountain bear in mind that your purpose in purchasing a new fountain is to increase your business, and that the fountain, if properly selected, will increase your business. Therefore, select a fountain that has considerably larger capacity than the business you are doing with your old outfit, and leave a good margin of safety for the growth that you hope will come. There is so large a profit in soda water dispensing that any dispenser who can afford to employ a dispensing clerk can afford to put in at least a 16-syrup fountain, because the overhead expense will be practically the same whether the fountain is large or small. The larger fountain will distribute this overhead expense over a so much larger volume of sales that the net returns will be propor-tionately greater, and the large fountain also warrants you in spending enough money to advertise your dispensing business in a way that will keep the crowd constantly coming.

Soda Water Guide and Book of Recipes

There is a,happy medium between too little and too much money invested in soda fountains. Too little money means a cheap outfit that will be a lasting discredit and will tend to repel rather than invite trade. Too much expendi-ture throws upon the dispenser so heavy a burden that with limited capital he is crippled in his advertising and promotion expenditures and is compelled to cut corners where they should not be cut.

Builders of soda fountains nowadays are very liberal in their terms of payment. A fountain can be bought by paying a small amount down, giving notes for the balance and meeting these notes by monthly payments. If wisdom has been used in the selection of a site and the choice of a fountain, the fountain should pay monthly profits much greater than are necessary to meet these obligations as they fall due. As a matter of fact, probably more than half the soda fountains in successful operation today paid for themselves without necessitating recourse to the owner's other resources.

A business of thirty dollars a day should mean from fifteen to twenty dollars clear profit. Figure how large a business you should by right secure, and base your expenditure upon this probable income, but by all means leave a sufficient margin so that you have ample ready money to advertise your business, to purchase the highest grade of fruits and syrups,, to manufacture or purchase the best ice cream, to employ competent dispensing help, and in short to operate your dispensing business on a high grade, broad gauge plan.


The public has certain rights which in his own interest the successful dispenser must respect. The customer, on entering the store, takes a mental picture of the fountain, the clerks, the supplies, and in fact everything in sight, and this first impression is what will either make a permanent customer who will bring other customers, or will start an unfavorable influence that will be hard for you to overcome.

The soda fountain is the center of attraction, and it is this detail that first receives the praise or condemnation. Above all things, the public expects and must have pure, uncontaminated, wholesome, ice-cold soda water. If 5'our soda fountain will not produce such it is a failure, and the quicker you get rid of it the better. Clean, tidy and comfortable surroundings are also essential. A fountain littered with bottles of questionable cleanliness, combined with dripping faucets and sloppy floors,, will never draw trade nor hold it. And the more attractive the fountain externally the more delicious the soda will taste, and the more frequently the individual customer will return— and bring his or her friends. The power of suggestion is, it is true, an "unknown quantity," but at the same time is so large a factor in the production of definite results that you cannot afford to overlook it.

A beginner in soda dispensing who wishes to take the least risk in trying out a location may do so by installing a second hand fountain, but as a general proposition it is poor business to do so, because second hand fountains invari-ably represent types that have become unprofitable for their former users, and the purchase of a second hand fountain should be only a last resort. It is the new fountain in every community that gets the business. Other things being equal, the handsomest and biggest fountain does more business than any two or three o'f its competitors combined. The Liquid Carbonic Company has several stock designs of up-to-date fountains that are offered at low prices. These are particularly designed for the use of the beginner whose capital is limited.


Without doubt, the most important single feature in the success of the soda water dispensing business is the location of the store. Almost every town has a principal street, and almost every principal street has a cheap side and a high priced side. Even though rents on the high priced side be double those on the cheap side, there is ultimate economy in selecting the best location where the best people are wont to pass or congregate. The profits in soda water dispens-ing are sufficiently liberal to warrant paying the highest rent charged, and the value of a location is measured by the number and character of people who pass the door. A man intending to take up the dispensing of soda water as a business, who has not selected his location, can do no better than to spend the time necessary to count the people who pass a given point hour after hour for a day or more, at the same time making a mental note of the class of people passing. In the large cities, real estate firms, whose business it is to rent stores in the principal streets, have reduced the matter of counting the passers by to a science, and rents are frequently based on the number of people who pass a given corner per hour. It is a safe bet that almost a fixed percentage of people passing a given point will be attracted by a soda water sign and come in and satisfy their thirst. See to it that your store is so located that the people passing by are ones who have ten-cent thirsts and not nickel thirsts, because the difference between profit and loss in soda water dispensing is very frequently the difference, between five-cent and ten-cent business.


"Melted Profits" is the epitome of many a soda fountain with an ice box that seems bottomless. To make money out of the soda water business you must, as we have said before, begin right—with an economical soda fountain. If your fountain consumes a minimum of ice, there will be a margin of several dollars each week which can be advantageously applied to bettering the quality of your soda water and increasing your trade.

That both beauty to the eye and high efficiency as a dispensing machine are embodied in the "Liquid Iceless" to a marked degree is now acknowledged everywhere. In this apparatus the waste refrigeration from the brine of the ice cream cabinet is utilized in cooling the syrup enclosures and the soda and mineral water pipes. This does away entirely with the cooler box that hereto-fore has been a feature of all counter dispensing soda fountains. This apparatus is described further on.

If you are a beginner in the soda water business, you will find the soda fountain question the most vital and the most difficult of all to solve. Or if you have been in the business for years, trying to eke out an existence with an old-time soda fountain consisting of a wooden or marble shell, with a few pipes running through it, 3rou will discover that progress in soda fountain manu-facture has been so rapid and recent inventions so numerous that you will be obliged to exercise more than' ordinary caution in the selection of a new fountain that shall be in all respects practical.

A Twelve Months' Business

The demand for soda water is so universal, and it is taking the place of alcoholic drinks so generally, that every live dispenser can make his fountain pay him a fine profit every month in the year.
Whether the day be hot or cold, the thirst demands a cold drink. The body craves it and must have it.

No matter how cold the day, men and women don't heat their drinking water. They want it cold. True, there is a growing demand for hot fountain drinks during the cold weather. And this means a double profit to the dispenser, as we show later.
Experience demonstrates that the dispenser who is equipped to supply both,
hot and cold fountain drinks in winter finds that each helps the sale of the
other and that the two together make the winter season one of a highly satis-
factory profit, not alone from the fountain itself, but from the increased sale of
other lines.

American dispensers can learn a useful lesson from the thrifty Greeks in this all-the-year-round way of doing business.

Points Worth Considering
In determining the suitability of a soda fountain you must use your eyes, hands and ears. Open every compartment and examine minutely the material used and the mechanical construction. It requires skilled labor to put a soda fountain together properly, and any man with good eyes can detect cracks, weak mortises, uneven soldering, misfits and other evidences of slipshod methods of manufacture. Look for them.

In no place in any fountain should wood or other absorbent material come in contact with moisture. This is vital.
All material used in soda fountain construction should be of highest quality, and worked up to the best advantage. Syrup containers should be of porcelain, easily removed for washing, one at a time, without losing refrigeration to the rest of the battery. These containers should have no recesses in which syrups can harden and they should be so placed that a free circulation of cold air reaches their interiors. Coolers should be of seamless copper tubing, tinned, and in addition, have a block tin inner lining; ends of coolers should be of solid block tin. In this respect, if you are dealing with a thoroughly reliable firm, you can usually depend on what they say concerning quality of material. But it is still good policy to investigate, where possible, several of the concern's fountains which have been in operation for some years. They will tell their own story in a manner that should satisfy you one way or the other. Give salesmen plenty of opportunity to tell you all they know about their respective apparatus—but don't fail to exercise your own good judgment that will result from careful personal investigation.

Pumps must be absolutely non-corrosive, easily removed for cleaning, and quickly adjusted so that they automatically dispense the right amount of syrup.

In the selection of a soda fountain, refrigeration should be the first con-sideration. First, because sodas must be cold, and second, because faulty refrigeration means daily and hourly waste of ice, and ice means money.

Insulation is the first requisite of refrigeration. Cork is thus far the only substance obtainable that affords practically perfect insulation, and which at the same time is proof against swelling or decomposition from the effects of moisture. The basic principle of all insulation is the utilization of "still-air" as an insulator. Air is the best non-conductor of heat known to man, but air to insulate must be confined so that it cannot move. Cork examined under a microscope shows not only the large cells which are visible to the eye, but every
particle of its structure is made up of millions of minute cells ranging from the size of a pin head to one one-thousandth of that size,, and every cell is, in effect, a little bag full of imprisoned air. A piece of cork that has been submerged under a pressure of several hundred feet of ocean for years has been shown to be apparently as free from water-logging as when it was sunk in the shipwreck, and seemed to possess the same buoj'ancy as cork newly cut from the bark, while wood or any other absorbent substance subjected to the same shipwreck test becomes so water-logged that after a few months it does not float at all.

Cork is the only insulation that the dispenser should permit in his fountain, as it is the one perfect insulating material that is at the same time fully and always sanitary. A fountain in which paper, or wood, or fibre, or any sub-stitute for cork is used, is an unsafe apparatus and should not be given a moment's consideration, no matter how great the price temptation offered. Pine boards and paper are used by some fountain builders for insulation, but as such insulation is sure to absorb moisture and become foul, it should be shunned. - There must be sufficient coolers to cool the carbonated water as it passes through them, even if the faucet was opened constantly. Here is a point which merits thorough investigation, for during a "rush" many a fountain fails to produce ice-cold beverages, the most important of all good soda water require-ments. It is a well-known fact in soda fountain operation that the refrigerator is either the money eater or the money saver, and it is just as true that many soda fountains consume twice and even three times as much ice as they should. The satisfactory manner in which the "Liquid Iceless" has solved this problem has made it by far the most popular fountain on the market, and up to the time of going to press with this book, the "Liquid Iceless" has carried the country by storm.

We are living in an age when everything which has to do with man's health must be clean, harmless and wholesome. So it is with soda water. A soda fountain must not only present a cleanly appearance from without, but should be free from all dirt, odors and germs within. All parts of a fountain should be readily accessible and easy to clean.

The white porcelain syrup containers on the "Liquid" fountains are abso-lutely dust-proof, germ-proof and fly-proof, and may be lifted at will from their receptacles, washed and thoroughly cleansed.

The problem of securing non-corrosive metals suitable for use in and about a soda fountain is one of the most serious ones that the fountain builder has to confront him. Acids corrode metals and nearly all the syrups used in a fountain contain acids.
In the construction of the "Liquid" fountain, this problem has been solved by the use of heavily silver plated German silver for the workboards, pumptops and in fact,, all exposed parts. The pumps themselves are made of a secret process non-corrosive white metal—a metal that is even more proof against corrosion than German silver.

By using aluminum for pumps we might save a great deal of money, but aluminum has been weighed in the balance and found wanting, as acitate of aluminum, a poisonous salt, is generated when aluminum is brought into contact with acids.

Another feature about "Liquid" construction is the fact that its pumps do not drip, and a third important feature in the same connection is the downward slant of the covers of the syrup jars.

A fountain to be sanitary also, must be absolutely free from the use of wood or other absorbent material where it has even a remote liability of coming in contact with moisture, or becoming affected by moisture. This point must be insisted upon by the purchaser of a fountain.

The apparent saving in first cost that you would make by buying a cheap fountain in which these important sanitary features are neglected, is not a saving at all, but a serious expense.

If the drainage of a soda fountain is imperfect, a surplus of water collects in the ice box and pipes,, the woodwork is soaked and mildewed, and the fountain in general becomes unsanitary and filthy and productive of strong odors. Ice cream cabinets should be provided with outlet pipes of ample size and leading directly downward. Caution should be exercised to keep all refuse, dirt, straw,, etc. (which are likely to be in the ice), from collecting at the mouth of the outlet. Such debris should not be allowed to accumulate in any part of the fountain. All sinks and workboards should have good drainage, and if proper attention is accorded matters of this kind, it will be found much easier to insure cleanliness and prevent wet floors and damp musty odors.

The self skimming overflow provided on "Lriquid" wash basins is a valuable' feature, as the clear water is admitted at the bottom of the basin and the ice cream, syrups, etc., rise to the top and are carried off with the escaping water. The whole working part of the fountain should be so constructed that if you wish you can turn your hose on to it and flush out every part of it, and so that there is no working part that cannot be reached with a scrubbing brush and soap and water.

Another point in sanitation is the free circulation of pure air. Syrup con-tainers, syrup jars, and in fact, every part of the fountain containing fruits or syrups should be flooded with a constant flow of ice cold air, both in order to keep the temperature low and to keep the fruits and syrups sweet and clean. Outside of sunlight itself, there is no germicide so effective as pure cold air.

The soda fountain trade is very unevenly distributed. As a general proposi-tion your fountain is either doing a rushing business with crowds standing in line or it is doing but little business. A fountain to bring you the largest amount of returns and prove most satisfactory in the long run must be one which will serve the largest number of patrons in the smallest possible time. In other words, a speedy fountain.

The "Liquid" Counter Dispensor and the "Liquid Iceless" Soda Dispensor have a speed feature that we originated and others afterwards copied, namely the slanting position of the syrup enclosure, which permits the dispenser to hold under the faucet's mouth a handful of three or four glasses, syruping all of these from one faucet or syruping them from different faucets without relinquishing the grasp. In oth^r words, the recess back of the line-of-fall of the syrup from the faucet's mouth gives the dispenser hand-room to manipulate three or four glasses at once, while with the vertical construction there is barely space to hold one glass between the faucet's mouth and the marble wall back of it, so each glass has to be handled singly and separately. Another element of speed in the "Liquid" fountain is the fact that "Liquid" pumps will deliver syrup as. fast as the speediest dispenser can manipulate his glasses without having to wait for the pump to fill or "recover," as is necessary on other fountains. A third feature of speed is the fact that the pump-tops of "Liquid" fountains are below the level of the counter, giving the dispenser a free access to the serving slab without having to lift and lower his glasses over a "hurdle" of high standing pumps.

The fact that the spouts of "Liquid" pumps are stationary rather than swinging is also an important element of speed in dispensing because a clerk does not have to stop to calculate where to hold his glass, or to swing his glass in a circle to conform with the moving of the swinging spout such as is used on many other forms of fountains.

Another important feature is the slanting position of the tops and the packers of "Liquid" ice cream cabinets. Experience shows that three ice creams can be served from a slanting cabinet in about the time it takes two to be served from the vertical cabinet, and the element of stooping is very greatly reduced.

We have seen that a fountain must be sanitary and speedy and must be cork insulated. The next necessary requisite is durability. First of all, no fountain should receive a moment's consideration that has glued wooden parts in the dispensing counter because no glue has yet been invented that is proof against moisture. As a matter of fact, every purchaser of a fountain should strain every effort to buy only a fountain in which nothing but marble and metal enter into the dispensing part of the apparatus, because wood, no matter how carefully insulated, is an element of danger from the standpoint of durability, as wood will swell and warp and crack as the result of moisture. The all-marble and all-metal construction is much superior in the long run.

The simplest pump is the most durable pump; the simplest fountain, take it from top to bottom, is the most durable fountain, other things being equal.

The installation of a new soda fountain is quite an important event in every community. It is certainly important to the buyer of the fountain because it means that he has tied up quite a considerable portion of his capital in it, and if he is to realize the proper dividend on that fountain he must have a fountain that will attract attention and dollars to itself because of its beauty. A fountain to be beautiful need not necessarily be elaborate, as the cultured eye is more permanently satisfied with simple beauty than an elaborate attempt at beauty. The beauty of chaste simplicity is a lasting satisfaction. A fountain should therefore be simple in its lines and massive in its construction, and should avoid anything that savors of what is commonly known as "ginger bread" adornment. Strong lines and heavy members convey to the average eye, whether it be schooled in art or not, an impression of beauty and cost that cannot be obtained through the most elaborate use of "gimcrack" decoration. But this beauty must be more than "skin deep." In other words, the carving should be real hand-carving rather than a composition moulded and colored to appear like wood. Similarly, the mirror should be heavy plate glass even if it is necessary to select a smaller mirror in order to keep within your price rather than accepting a large expanse of cheap glass.

The color scheme of a fountain should harmonize with the color scheme of
the balance of the store. Makers of fountains who are up-to-date are glad to
do this. By all means study the matter of beauty with the greatest of care
before selecting the fountain, being sure that the design you select possesses an
attractiveness that will be permanent rather than passing. Anything in the
nature of flash or freak ornamentation must be avoided, because, after the first
surprise is over it will become an eye-sore not only to yourself, but to your
patrons as well.

In selecting a fountain, the very greatest care should be used in inspecting the workboard, because the character of your service and the speed at which you,£an serve sodas depends upon the arrangement of the workboard, and the very life of the fountain as a soda water dispensing machine, depends upon the construction and durability of its every part.

In the new "Iceless" fountain now being built by the various manufacturers, it is almost a universal practice to place the draft stand in the center, imme-diately beneath which is either a cold air refrigerator, with an ice cream cabinet on either side, or an ice cream cabinet in the center.

Either one of these constructions is good, and it should be repeated for each draft stand. Do not permit yourselves to be persuaded by any manufacturer to buy a fountain in which the ice cream cabinets are at the far ends of the outfit, away from the draft stand where the refrigeration is largely lost, and where the matter of dishing cream involves a great deal of walking.

Slanting Syrup Enclosure—The best construction for a soda fountain is that in which the syrup enclosure is inserted above the workboard in a slanting position. This slant serves the double purpose of giving it a large, free work-board space, and for giving ease and speed in dispensing owing to the free hand room it allows.

Wash Basins—Should be square, with rounded corners, as the square construction gives the largest available volume of water, and the rounded corners make cleaning easy. In examining a fountain, tap the bottom of the wash basins, to be sure that they are properly reinforced from below, as basins in which there is no reinforcement below the metal are easily dinged and soon become leaky.

Water Circulation—Those fountains are best in which the water is admitted from the bottom of the basin, and are provided for an automatic self-skimming overflow at the top of the basin. This construction, the one used by the Liquid Carbonic Company, permits all the ice cream and grease and fruit syrups and other impurities which flow, to be skimmed over automatically, the admission of clear water from the bottom raising the level of the water so that it purifies itself constantly.

Avoid construction in which these impurities flow into drains that are con-cealed and cannot easily be cleaned out. The best construction is the remov-able overflow standpipe, which can easily be screwed out from its seat and cleaned, or a modification of this standpipe in a wide double drain, which is provided with a sieve which catches the heavier impurities, and can be cleaned in the same manner.
Hot Water—It is a great mistake to buy any fountain that is not provided with hot water circulation, as hot water is really necessary in order to keep everything clean and ship-shape. It is well worth what it costs.

Drain Boards—By examining various makes of fountains you will find that the Liquid Carbonic Company's drain boards are the only ones that are made properly, as .they are the only ones that are deeply hand corrugated. The deep sharp corrugations of the "Liquid" drain board makes it a real drain board, and glasses inverted on it are always free from contamination by the slop from other glasses. This is an expensive construction, but it pays.

Reinforced Rims—The "Liquid" is the only fountain on which rims of basins and workboards are reinforced properly. This reinforcement prevents dinging and adds greatly to the durability of the outfit.
Chipped Ice Compartment—There is an increasing demand for chipped ice in soda water beverages, whether it is really necessary or not. This demand must be recognized, and in the purchase of a fountain only those types should be considered that provide for an adequate store space for chipped ice. The removable, perforated basket arrangement used by the Liquid Carbonic Com-pany is particularly good, as it is sanitarj', convenient and economical.

The ice cream cabinet is a great improvement over the dirty, sloppy tub formerly in vogue. Ice cream cabinets as they are built today, are of good lumber lined with metal or, better still, of heavy marble slabs. These cabinets are square in shape, and are usually constructed by soda fountain manufacturers to fit in very nicely at the end of the workboard.

By using an ice cream cabinet the floors never become sloppy, as they do with a tub. The walls of such a cabinet are heavily packed and lined with insulating 'material and contain a dead air chamber, thus ^making a perfect refrigerator. Where the dispenser freezes his own ice cream, a cabinet will pay for itself within a short time, by the saving in ice. Another excellent feature of a cabinet is that the ice cream need never melt. There is an outlet pipe in the bottom of cabinet, allowing all water to drain off, and by packing it in the evening the ice cream will be firm and ready for use in the morning. This obviates the grave danger incurred in refreezing ice cream several times, from which a certain poisonous constituent is evolved. Another objectionable feature about refreezing ice cream is that it becomes lumpy, icy and unpalat-able. The ice cream cabinet obviates all this, as the ice cream can be kept at the proper consistency by simplj' adding the necessary quantity of salt.
Ice cream cabinets, to withstand the action of the salt water, should be lined with tinned copper. There should also be a jacket or screen between the ice and the ice cream can, so the can may be taken out with ease and another one put in without removing the ice. This jacket or screen should be made of some non-destructible material, and have perforations or meshes to allow the water and the freezing properties of the ice to come in contact with the can.

When you have ordered your fountain and have received notice of its, shipment, it is advisable to send word to the manufacturer asking him to send a competent representative to erect the fountain. Manufacturers, as a rule, do this work at a nominal charge, and this precaution prevents many an expensive error in setting up. The plumbing of the fountain is a highly important matter and the best plumber in town is none too good to intrust with the necessary con-nections. Faulty plumbing has ruined many a good dispensing business before the dispenser realized what was the matter.

A soda fountain is considered by some so durable an apparatus that in many instances it is practically left to look after itself, while corrosion, rot, mildew and dirt are eating away its insides. The material of which a soda fountain is built is destructible—wood, onyx, bronze, tin, silver, etc.—and the more careful the attention given these materials the longer they will last.

There is little incentive to give proper attention to a soda fountain which does not show the results of the labor, and many are so sadly neglected that within a few years the owners are operating old, worn-out apparatus which should be practically as good as new. But it is the exception where a highly polished onyx fountain is allowed to want for care. It is this lack of attention which sends many a good soda fountain to the junk pile every year while the maker is condemned for its faulty mechanism and construction. This further illustrates the importance of selecting a fountain in which you will always take pride and keep in a perfect state of preservation.

If the old axiom "cleanliness' is next to Godliness" should ever be per-sonified, let the soda water dispensing business be honored with the distinction. Nowhere is dirt so conspicuous as about the soda fountain. Soda water being a luxury and not a necessity, it is optional with the public whether it is drank or left alone. But it is extensively drank, because of its deliciousness and healthfulness, and in order to stimulate this demand everything must be clean, wholesome and appetizing.

Setting up and Caring for the Fountain
A fountain and counter smeared with syrups, ice cream and dirty water, or promiscuously covered with unwashed glasses, sticky bottles and sour cloths, and swarming with flies, while the dispenser picks his way over a sloppy floor, will never stimulate the appetite or induce the customers to come again. Remove dirty dishes and glasses from the counter and tables as soon as the customer has gone and before another has taken his seat. Another matter too often slighted, in the way of cleanliness, is the condition of the dispensers' and waiters' jackets and aprons. They should don clean ones every morning, after the cleaning up work is done, and oftener where neatness demands it.

The onyx and marble portions of the soda fountain should be thoroughly cleaned each morning, by applying olive or sweet oil with a soft woolen cloth and polishing briskly with a dry flannel.
For removing dirt, grease, oil, stains, etc., which will not yield to ordinary treatment, the following formula will be found reliable and very efficient:

Setting up and Caring for the Fountain
Apply the paste to the stain and let remain for several days.
Iron rust or ink spots may be taken out by dissolving in l/2 pints rain water, 2 ounces oxalic acid, -)4 ounce butter antimony, flour sufficient to make the mixture of proper consistency. Apply with a brush, let remain a few days and wash off. Grease spots may be removed by applying common clay, saturated with benzine.
Great care should be exercised to keep strong acids from marble and onyx as they eat holes in the surface which cannot be remedied.

Wash the top thoroughly and frequently with a sponge, tepid water and soap, then give a rubbing with a good furniture polish. In addition to this cleansing, top should be dusted thoroughly and rubbed with a soft cloth each morning.

All silver plated parts should be treated each morning in the following manner: Apply a good washing solution with a soft sponge, then polish with a woolen rag and chamois cloth. Cheap, gritty silver polishes should not be used, as they scratch the surfaces.
P. D. Q. Silver Polish (The Liquid Carbonic Co.) will be found the most effective and satisfactory preparation for cleaning silver.

In winter under certain atmospheric conditions, and if not polished every day, silver plate becomes oxidized and turns black. By washing these parts in a solution of caustic soda, rinsing carefully, drying, and then painting every exposed portion with a transparent lacquer—Pegamoid (for silver plating) or collodion properly thinned down, this may be prevented. If the latter prepara-tion is used, two applications should be given. Apply the lacquer with a soft camel's hair or sable brush, so as to cover all points and parts.

Mirrors should be cleaned at least twice a week, and oftener if necessary. Warm water, good soap suds and some dry towels will suffice for this purpose.

Workboards should be the symbol of cleanliness and polished bright and clean each morning. German silver workboards can be cleaned with a good washing powder solution, but in case this does not remove all spots, an applica-tion of P. D. Q. Silver Polish will give the desired results. Copper workboards should be cleaned and polished with P. D. Q. Copper Polish.

As these parts of the fountain are the ones more directly pertaining to the purity of the soda water, under no circumstances should they be neglected. In the name of pure soda water and the furthering of this lucrative business, keep your syrup containers clean and give the people a healthful, wholesome beverage. Whenever the syrup jars are empty, they should be thoroughly cleansed with hot water and soap or a good washing powder. Rinse carefully, to remove all traces of soap and suds. Clean faucets of body or wall fountains by running hot water through them the same as syrup. During the day the outlets of the faucets should be wiped occasionally with a wet cloth to remove any dust that may collect.

If the fountain is seriously out of repair, it should have the attention of a skilled mechanic, or if possible, a practical soda fountain repair man. If some part is broken which can be detached from the fountain, send it to the original manufacturers, as they are better prepared than anyone else to put it in proper condition. Large concerns have branch establishments in all principal cities where experienced men are kept for this purpose.

With just enough exceptions to prove the rule, it is a mistake for any dis-penser to close his fountain in the winter. Even in Maine and North Dakota the up-to-date dispensers find it highly profitable to operate their fountains all winter, and to sell both hot and cold sodas. However, as some dispensers will insist on closing down in winter, we give the following advice:
In closing down a soda fountain for the winter,, the apparatus should be given a thorough and systematic overhauling and cleaning. In this way all worn-out or weak parts will be located and can be repaired and put in condi-tion for the following spring opening.

All water should be drained from pipes and ice chamber., and all parts exposed to moisture made absolutely dry. The silver plating can be kept from oxidizing, or turning black, by use of the formula under "Silver Parts."
How to Open a Fountain in the Spring
If a soda fountain is properly put out of commission in the fall, it is a com-paratively easy matter to re-open in the spring. As dust and other impurities unavoidably accumulate in the various compartments, there is necessitated a thorough washing and cleaning. All leather washers in the cooler and con-nection pipes should be replaced, as the old ones become dry and hard. 

The same applies to draft arms. They should be taken apart, and the old leather washers removed and new ones put in their places. It has also been found desirable to soak the new washers in a hot mixture of one-half paraffine and one-half beeswax; this will fill up all pores in the leather, at the same time acting as a lubricant. After the washers are in place, and the draft arms assembled, care should be exercised not to screw the discs too tight—just tight enough to prevent leaking.

Some of the articles above enumerated are not absolutely essential to the operation of a soda fountain, but they are all time-savers, and should be found in some convenient place at the fountain. A tumbler washer is a novelty to most persons, and will attract no little attention and comment. If a customer can watch a glass get a thorough cleansing, he will be more apt to relish his soda water than if he thinks a glass is simply "dipped" in a tub of cold water underneath the counter and pronounced clean.

A lemon squeezer is considered a little thing—in fact it is so small, as found in many establishments, that the clerk is compelled to strain every muscle to get the juice out of the lemon. It costs a very little more to purchase a large squeezer which can be attached to the counter and operated with lever power.

There are many varieties of ice cream dishers, but the most convenient are those which empty their contents by pressing a lever or some similar device. An ice cream disher should be nickel plated, and have as few seams as possible, where grease and other impurities find lodgment, and a disher should never be used after the nickel or polish is gone. Best of all, get a disher with a solid German silver or aluminum bowl. This settles the "plating" trouble once for all. A thorough scalding every morning is necessary to perfect sanitation.

A sharp knife, of triple plate or silver steel, should be within easy reach. The acid of a lemon will tarnish an ordinary steel blade.

Lemon and egg phosphate shakers should be nickel plated outside and silver frosted inside, or of hard rubber. Where egg phosphates are dispensed, an egg phosphate shaker is of the highest importance, as it beats, shakes and strains the drink complete.

A liberal supply of soap should be kept on hand always, and used in con-junction with a liberal quantity of elbow motion each morning. Care should be exercised, however, in applying the common soaps and washing powders to highly polished woods and metals, as they are likely to destroy the finish or scratch the metal.

These articles should be in evidence during the entire day. A sponge is far better to wipe the counter with than a wet, dirty towel, and a sponge can be easily cleaned and will not sour like a cloth. Several clean towels should be fastened to the towel rail in front of the workboard each morning for the dis-penser's use, and by all means where waiters are employed, see that they are supplied with clean laundered towels as frequently as absolute neatness and cleanliness requires.

Electric bells, speaking tubes and such appliances indicate progressiveness, and are the means of saving many weary steps during the day. One electric bell should communicate with the cellar, to call the cellar man, and one with the rear part of the store to call a clerk when a customer enters. A speaking tube also should lead to the cellar for ordering extra syrups or giving directions to the cellar man. Another modern convenience is the "dummy" waiter. This is especially convenient where more than one floor is utilized in serving soda fountain beverages, and also for sending material up from the basement.

These should all be as comfortable and convenient as possible. In arranging stools at the counter, do not put them so close together that the slightest move on the part of one customer will make it uncomfortable for those on either side..
The same holds true with tables and chairs. The tables should be large enough to allow each customer seated at them ample room to comfortably enjoy his drink without infringing upon his friend's good nature. It is also well, where children contribute to your soda water profits, to have juvenile tables and chairs for their accommodation.

Although your store may be small, you should endeavor to make room for at least a table or two. It is the ladies who bring the men to the soda fountain, and to reach this very desirable class of customers., tables are absolutely essential.

It does not pay to buy cheap silverware. As soon as the silver plating is worn off (which is very quickly) you are in the market for another supply. Good plate will last for years and will always appear well. Nothing is more disgusting to the average feminine customer, than to be served with a dish of ice cream or a sundae with a pewter or tin spoon. A nice set of silverware, chocolate pitchers and other articles, gold lined or satin finished, gives to the soda water establishment a touch of refinement that is certain to be appre-ciated by the best trade.

Setting up and Caring for the Fountain
Tumblers for soda should be thin, light and bell-shaped.. For ginger ale and mineral waters, a straight or taper tumbler is best. Have various sizes of tumblers for the different drinks. Salt and pepper shakers should be of cut glass or good imitation, of a neat pattern, and have silver tops. Sherbet and sundae cups should be of attractive design. All glassware should be of the same general pattern.
The class you desire as your customers are not accustomed to eating or drinking without napkins. A paper napkin of good quality costs but a trifle, and adds materially to the comfort of the customer.

These articles of glassware are not only essential, where crushed fruits and punch are served, but when they are of ornate design, they constitute excellent decorative material, a point which is touched on more fully in a succeeding chapter. These bowls should be protected from flies and dirt either by a tight cover or by a strong current of air from an electric fan. Fruits, punch, etc., tastily displayed in this manner, have an almost irresistible attraction for cus-tomers as they pass the soda water counter.

A neat menu card should be a feature of the dispensing counter and table paraphernalia. The four-page card, with an artistic design on the front page and printed on a high grade paper makes a very attractive menu. The ordinary menu card could often times be improved upon by having it gotten out by good printers—men who know how to arrange type effectively and attractively.
The price of each drink should be placed opposite the name of the drink as it appears on the menu card. Many a plain soda or five cent drink is served the-customer instead of a ten or fifteen cent fancy concoction, because of the omis-sion of the price. Some people like to know in advance what they are going to pay for an article but don't care to inquire.

Money Making Management of Your Soda Water Business
Success in any business must be built upon a solid foundation, and this is not less true in the soda water business than elsewhere. The Liquid Carbonic Co. is to a large extent responsible for the prosperous condition of the soda water business today. The pens of countless writers upon soda water subjects have sounded the warning to those who insist upon buying equipment and supplies simply because they are cheap, regardless of quality. The prices of The Liquid Carbonic Co. may in some cases seem a trifle high, but if quality counts for anything their goods are the lowest priced on the market. If you happen to be wondering why your "soda water business is not a paying proposition"—as many dispensers are doing—a consultation with this concern should be of benefit to yourself and to your pocketbook.

The soda fountain is a machine for coining beverages into dollars. Like all other machines, it may be economically or wastefully operated. The three leading elements of expense in a soda fountain are ice, clerk hire, and fountain supplies. A fountain is either an ice eater or an ice saver. The Liquid Carbonic Company's fountains, both the iced and the iceless types, are ice savers, for reasons referred to before that can be proved to anyone, but even on a fountain that is built exactly right ice can be wasted if care is not used. Every cover designed to keep warm air away from the ice must be kept closed, except when in actual use, becavise enough hot air can be admitted in sixty seconds through an orifice no larger than your hand to destroy a lot of ice.

Fruits and syrups are a large expense, and ice cream is a material on which the dispenser makes only a small profit. It is therefore necessary that clerks be instructed to use the greatest watchfulness in the dispensing of fruits, syrups and ice cream. A soda with too much syrup in it is not only a sinful waste of syrup,, but it is a poor advertisement, because it is sickening and leaves a bad impression. Too much ice cream served with a drink is apt to repel rather than attract the customer who is at all dainty in her taste.
On the subject of clerk hire, much depends on the make of the fountain purchased. The "Liquid" fountain, as a general proposition will do as much with one skilled energetic dispenser as the ordinary fountain will do with two men of average ability, because the "Liquid" provides economies and conveniences that will enable one man to do the work that would otherwise require two, as stooping, reaching and walking back and forth are very largely elimi-nated on the "Liquid" fountain because everything is right at the dispenser's hand.

If your soda water business is sufficient to employ a regular dispenser instead of depending upon clerks from the other departments, such a dispenser should by all means be employed, and put in white duck uniform, as a proper dress, uniform cleanliness and the expert knowledge of the dispenser, will do more to attract and hold the best trade than anything else you can do.

It is a mistake for any dispenser to attempt to manufacture his own fruits or syrups. It stands to reason that large houses making this a business are able to do this work more economically, under conditions of more absolute sanita-tion, than can the individual; and that their use of labor saving machinery coupled with the money they save by buying their fruits by the carload, enables them to give a better product than the dispenser can possibly produce at the same cost.

It stands to reason that home-made fruits and syrups that apparently cost less than the prevailing prices quoted by the legitimate manufacturers,, are inferior to those furnished by such manufacturers.
Quite the opposite is the case with ice cream in most localities, because the manufacture of ice cream involves the use only of a good ice cream freezer and pure milk and cream. The man who manufactures his own ice cream can buy cream at just about as low a price as the big ice cream companies, and he can use the services of his regular employees without extra cost to manufacture his ice cream, and when he has it finished, he knows he has a pure cream, free from adulterants, something which is impossible for him to determine when he buys from an outside concern. As a general proposition, the dispenser can serve better cream of his own manufacture than he can buy at the same cost from a professional ice cream manufacturer. A number of excellent recipes are given in this book for the preparation of high grade ice creams.

An attractive soda fountain, expensive furniture and fittings, handsomely decorated walls and beautiful pictures—all count for but little if the store and soda fountain are kept in a haphazard, slovenly manner. Counter, tables, chairs, glasses and holders—all should be immaculate. Remember, that dainty silks and broadcloths are easily spotted and soiled; and the wearer will never forget "where it happened."

Attention must be given to the personal appearance of all attendants. They should be supplied with clean coats and aprons each morning, and ofttimes an additional apron or two during the day does no harm. The hair should be kept combed and the face, hands and finger nails absolutely clean. A carnation on the lapel of the coat lends a finishing touch to a dispenser's or waiter's personal appearance.

We have referred above to the necessity of having the soda fountain and its surroundings tasteful and elegant. This does not necessarily mean that the furnishings must be expensive, but it does mean that they must be clean and fresh and bright. We have seen many a fountain costing two thousand dollars and over a disgrace to its owner because of the sloppy manner in which it was kept, and we have in mind a dispenser who paid nearly ten thousand dollars for his fountain and furnishings and then committed business suicide by chasing around the establishment in his shirt sleeves, with a soiled shirt at that, and with a frayed cigar stub in his mouth. The magnificence of his fountain and the beauty of his whole store attracted a large crowd of the best people of the community on his opening day, and for a day or two these people were able to make allowances for the confusion around the new place, but they gradually dropped off and he now serves five cent ice cream sodas, while a competitor across the street is getting ten and fifteen cents for ice cream and fancy drinks and has his store filled with the best people, while the man with the $10,000.00 outfit is playing to a gallery of servant girls and their beaux.

Dispensers who provide ample floor space for a number of tables not too closely crowded together, find that this use of the space pays better dividends than for any other class of merchandise. The day when people are willing to stand up before a counter, or even to sit on a revolving stool, is almost past and comfortable chairs and clean tables, with the service of napkins, is almost a universal and necessary adjunct to a well regulated soda dispensing business.

It seems almost unnecessary to say a word about courteous treatment, but we have seen so many examples of loss of business through discourtesy, that we feel a word is necessary. Courtesy does not only mean a pleasant smile, but it means doing things for customers that they will recognize as real favors. For instance, the grace with which you replace an unpalatable drink for one that is more to the taste will be worth hundreds of dollars to you in the aggregate in the community. Often a person orders a drink that sounds good, but does not suit her palate. By carefully watching the expressions of customers' faces and being quick to volunteer the exchange of an unacceptable drink for something else, will make a life-long friend of the customer thus favored.

A little timely tact along this line Mall add many five or ten-cent pieces to the day's receipts. A pleasant "good morning" or "good evening" makes the stranger feel welcome, and that his visit and patronage are appreciated.

Always endeavor to please, even though you are dealing with the town "crank." Let him have his way, and get his drinks prepared to suit his taste (remember he is paying for the drinks), and eventually he will become one of your best customers. If the patron asks to have his soda made sweet, give him an additional half ounce of syrup. It costs little, and you may gain other customers through him. If he does not relish his lemonade, make it over,, telling him you have a new idea that will just suit him.

If a party of friends enter your ice cream parlor, place sufficient chairs at one table to comfortably seat them all; or, frequently two tables can be drawn together to advantage. If the customer is carrying an umbrella, parcel or wraps, hang them up or lay them in some convenient place. If a patron accidentally spots his or her coat or gown, lend your assistance and whatever appliances you may have in removing the spot.

Familiarity is not courtesy, and should not be indulged in, for "familiarity breeds contempt." If some intimate friend happens to be your customer, with no other customer waiting to be served, a friendly word or two .about the weather or some current happening, does not come amiss. If you have a sufficient supply of violets or carnations at your fountain, offer one to some of your best feminine customers.

Under this caption necessarily comes, first of all, the soda fountain and its equipment. The attractiveness of the fountain itself can be easily enhanced by various simple and inexpensive decorations, in the way of statuettes, a fresh bunch of flowers each morning, a spreading fern-—something to arrest and please the eye.
A well kept and conducted store always attracts attention and favorable comment. The woodwork throughout the establishment should harmonize, and the walls should be in contrast to the woodwork, with artistic panels or fresco work. Omit all gaudiness; it never fails to look cheap. Good pictures copied from noted paintings are always welcome to the eye of the customer.

Music is being adopted as an attraction in many dispensories, but the music usually found in such places is of the ragtime varietj'., and will not attract a desirable class of trade if any. If you cannot furnish your patrons with good music, you had best omit it from your list of attractions and utilize the money that it would cost in bettering the quality of your goods, or in attractive decoration.

Some stores are so arranged that a fountain can be made to play in the center and gold fish and some natural palms give the place a cool and secluded appearance.

Well-to-do people in eveiy community are willing to pay from ten to fifteen cents for fancy drinks,, provided the drinks please their appetites. It is in the high priced drinks that the safest profits are made in soda dispensing, and in order to secure and hold high priced trade, it is necessary for you to have your store as neat and cleanly and as tastefully furnished as any one of your patrons' dining rooms. Neatness and cleanliness in and about the fountain, and an elegant manner in serving everything will attract and hold the high priced trade. There is no use trying to get ten and fifteen cents for a drink that is served in a sloppy manner in a heavy, cheap glass or dish, with spoons that have the plating worn off from them, or by a clerk whose hands and sleeves are soiled and spattered. As a general proposition the dispenser who thinks that he is forced to sell ice cream sodas for five cents a glass, is simply paying the penalty of doing badly what he should do well. The only class of beverage that ever should be sold for five cents is such drinks as mineral waters, phos-phate drinks and special carbonated beverages that are universally advertised as -nickel drinks. A dispenser who sells ice cream soda for less than ten cents is doing himself an injustice as well as lowering the standard of soda water dispensing, and it is just as easy to get fifteen as ten cents for such dishes as fancy nut sundaes or ice cream with hot chocolate poured over it as a dressing.

It does not take a dispenser long to ascertain which beverages bring him in the greatest revenue, and it is the wise man who "pushes" these.
The plain soda water drinks, phosphates, carbonated mineral waters, etc., yield large profits, and their consumption should be encouraged as much as possible. Plain soda beverages should be served in twelve-ounce glasses, phos-phates in nine-ounce glasses, and mineral waters in eight-ounce glasses. Phos-phates should, of course, be stirred with a spoon before serving.
Lemonade is a profit-maker at the usual price of ten cents, and there would be many more lemonades drank at the soda water counter if it did not require so much time for the average dispenser to prepare one.
If a soda water dispenser makes his own charged water, freezes his own ice cream, and buys good quality fruits and syrups, he can serve a first class glass of ice cream soda for five cents and still have a fair margin of profit for his trouble. However, we advise against offering ice cream sodas for five cents, as ten cents is the right price.

Fancy drinks not only pay well, where a fancy price can be charged, but when a long list of "palate ticklers" are found on a menu, it confers upon that place of business a prestige which effectively distinguishes it from the "one-horse" shop. Don't, however, attempt to serve fancy beverages and collect fancy prices for them unless you are thoroughly prepared with the materials and dispensers to give your patron something out of the ordinary. A poorly pre-pared and served fancy soda will often lose you a regular customer.

As much depends on the way a glass of soda is drawn and served as on the quality of the syrup and carbonated water. With the best of everything at hand the drink may be easily spoiled if not -mixed properly. This is a thing very much neglected by owners and managers of soda fountains. At many of the first-class soda fountains it will be found that although the syrups and soda water are in most cases of excellent quality, the drink is spoiled by carelessness or too much haste in the drawing and serving.

A good soda clerk should be polite, neat of person and dress, and be able to serve drinks with skill and dexterity.
Fruit Flavors with chocolate, vanilla, sarsaparilla and ginger, should be drawn as follows: Glass must be perfectly clean; pick it up in a delicate manner; keep your fingers away from the rim; draw syrup into it first, add ice cream if wanted; hold glass up close under full stream until/nearly full and then a few dashes of fine stream to finish. Put spoon into glass, at the same time giving a slight stir and serve in holder, seeing that straws are handy and that,,counter, especially in front of customer, is dry.
Soda withoutjce cream should be drawn with fine stream first and finished with full stream.

Still Drinks: Syrup first, shaved ice if wanted; place glass in front of customer and pour plain soda into it from another glass, stirring well with spoon at the same time. Serve with straw. Take hold of straw in the center or about three inches from the end of it as you put it in the glass. Don't let the customer do this. Do it yourself in a manner to indicate that you know your business. This pleases your patron, who will appreciate the drink much more than if he had to reach for the straw himself.

Phosphate Drinks: Draw regular quantity of syrup; pick up glass with left hand and hold it on level with your chin; pick up clean, shining phosphate bottle. Hold glass as above described, add a few dashes of phosphate before cus-tomer; lower glass and add shaved ice if wanted, set before customer and finish same as still drinks. Cherry cobblers and nearly all phosphate drinks should be served in the above manner. Don't serve phosphates in large or thick glasses.

For Egg Drinks: Break egg into glass with your back toward customer, add syrup called for, pour into shaker in front of customer, giving him an oppor-tunity to see the egg. Don't make the mistake of sticking your nose into the glass to "smell" the egg. Such an act not only disgusts the customer, but arouses his suspicion as to the character of eggs you serve. Add a few pieces of ice and shake well, holding the shaker in botli hands level with or slightly above the line of chin while shaking. Smile while doing this; at least look pleasant and be lively. Strain or pour the mixture into clean glass in front of customer, holding back the ice, add plain soda from another glass, at the same time stirring with a spoon. Put the straw in the drink yourself.

For Egg Phosphate: Same as above, using lemon or special egg phosphate syrup. Hold glass as above described, add a few dashes of acid phosphate and proceed with egg drinks. Add powdered nutmeg, if wanted, before putting straws into glass.

Don't sit down in your little corner after serving a customer and collapse as if you were tired. This has a bad effect not only on the customer but on the drink as well. Stand up., be busy with a nice clean towel or something per-taining to the fountain. Don't watch your customer while he is drinking.

The soldier's order "Head up and eyes in front" fits the dispenser equally well.

It is hard to produce a pure beverage from impure constituents. Water used for soda fountain beverages should be absolutely pure. A filter with a capacity great enough for any dispenser's trade can be purchased for a few-dollars, and it is then practically immaterial whether your water supply is from some muddy river or from an artesian well.

A filter and filtered water attracts a certain class of people who will not take impure water into their systems. Boiling will purify water, but this pro-cess is tedious, and the water is afterwards flat, insipid and lacking the valuable salts and minerals which it may have originally contained.

When a dispenser has a "Liquid" soda fountain complete in every detail, is fortified with a generous stock of "Liquid" Fruits and Syrups stored away in the refrigerator of his fountain, has his own outfit for the manufacture of ice cream, operates a "Liquid" Carbonator, and has on hand at all times at least one extra drum of "Diamond Brand Liquid Gas," he is independent, sure of his ground, and can take care of any rush crowd that lines up in front of his fountain. In no other way can a dispensing business be conducted so that the maximum net returns are guaranteed. A dispenser who has such an outfit with competent clerks behind the counter is care free. He can feel that he has an automatic machine for coining dollars; a machine that will not get out of order, and he can rest secure in the positive knowledge that he is serving to his patrons the best product that the skill of man, backed by ample capital, has been able to produce, and that he has, every minute in the day, concrete and marked advantages over every one of his competitors who are not thus completely equipped.

These should be as good as money and brains could make them. Some few dispensers prepare their own fruits and syrups, with more or less success,